The Fluoride Debate

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

HISTORY/
ENVIRONMENT

CENSORSHIP

THE FLUORIDE
DEBATE

BENEFITS
Question 1
Question 2
Question 3
Question 4
Question 5
Question 6
Question 7
Question 8

ALTERNATIVES
Question 9
Question 10
Question 11
Question 12


SAFETY
Question 13
Question 14

OVERDOSE
Question 15
Question 16
Question 17

DISEASES
Question 18
Question 19
Question 20
Question 21
Question 22
Question 23
Question 24
Question 25
Question 26
Question 27
Question 28
Question 29
Question 30
Question 31
Question 32
Question 33

PUBLIC
POLICY

Question 34
Question 35
Question 36
Question 37
Question 38
Question 39
Question 40

COST
EFFECTIVENESS
Question 41
Question 42
Question 43

CONCLUSION

DISEASES

Question 23.
Does fluoride inhibit the activity of enzymes in humans?

ADA's Fluoridation Facts Short Answer
Fluoride, in the amount provided through optimally fluoridated water, has no effect on human enzyme activity according to generally accepted scientific knowledge.

ADA's Fluoridation Facts Long Answer
Enzymes are organic compounds that promote chemical change in the body. Generally accepted scientific knowledge has not indicated that optimally fluoridated water has any influence on human enzyme activity. There are no available data to indicate that, in humans drinking optimally fluoridated water, the fluoride affects enzyme activities with toxic consequences.105 The World Health Organization report, Fluorides and Human Health states, "No evidence has yet been provided that fluoride ingested at 1 ppm in the drinking water affects intermediary metabolism of food stuffs, vitamin utilization or either hormonal or enzymatic activity."158

The concentrations of fluoride used in laboratory studies to produce significant inhibition of enzymes are hundreds of times greater than the concentration present in body fluids or tissues.140 While fluoride may affect enzymes in an artificial environment outside of a living organism in the laboratory, it is unlikely that adequate cellular levels of fluoride to alter enzyme activities would be attainable in a living organism.105 The two primary physiological mechanisms that maintain a low concentration of fluoride ion in body fluids are the rapid excretion of fluoride by the kidneys and the uptake of fluoride by calcified tissues.

Repeat of Question 23.
Does fluoride inhibit the activity of enzymes in humans?

Opposition's Response

Yes. Fluoride poisons enzymes. All the chemical reactions necessary to the life and function of the body depend on enzymes. Continuous depression of enzyme activity by fluorides produces alterations of function and symptoms of disease. Professor Hugo Theorell, Nobel Prize winner, (Medical Nobel Inst. Biochemist, Dept. of Communication to Royal Medical Board, Sweden, Mar. 1, 1958) based his opposition to fluoridation on the fact that fluoride is an established enzyme poison and potent inhibitor of many enzyme systems. His research, together with that of others in the Nobel Institute, had much to do with the unanimous ruling of Sweden's Supreme Administrative Court, Dec. 1961, that fluoridation of water supplies was not permissible under the "Swedish Health Act." (See 23-1: "Fluoride Poisons Enzymes," by Harvey Petraborg, M.D., 9/6/64).

" ... We ought to go slowly. Everybody knows fluorine and fluorides are very poisonous substances and we use them in enzyme chemistry to poison enzymes, those vital agents in the body. That is the reason things are poisoned, because the enzymes are poisoned and that is why animals and plants die." (Dr. James B. Sumner, Director of Enzyme Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Cornell University; Nobel Prize winner for his work in field of enzyme chemistry.)

The standard medical protocol in England for treating children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) is enzyme therapy.

"Fluorine is known to be an enzymatic inhibitor and interferes with metabolism of the breakdown of glucose." (Dr. Paul H. Phillips, University of Wisconsin, Department of Biochemistry.)

"There is plenty of evidence to indicate that fluorine in the amount of 1 ppm or slightly more interferes with enzyme systems and these enzyme systems are involved in the growth of bones, in the functioning of nerve tissue and so forth. It is clear that fluoridation is a calculated risk." (Dr. Robert S. Harris, (Ph.D.), Director of Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.)

"From the chemical and biochemical point of view, a key finding came in 1981, when John Emsley showed that fluoride formed a strong hydrogen bond with the amide function. This certainly gives a very plausible explanation as to why this 'chemically inert' entity fluoride could cause biochemical harm. Indeed, interference with the H-bonding poses a threat to the very heart of biochemistry where so much of the structure and function of proteins and nucleic acids is dependent on hydrogen bond making and breaking. This potential disruption of H-bonds would explain fluoride's inhibition of certain enzymes and possibly its interference with DNA repair mechanisms." (See 23-2: letter by Dr. Paul Connett, Professor of Chemistry, St. Lawrence University, Canton, NY, May 26. 1999).

" ... it is known as a scientific fact that fluoride is deadly poison to enzymes, upon which all life depends." (Dr. J.J. Rae, for 20 years professor of chemistry and Ph.D. in biochemistry and organics, University of Toronto.)

"As biochemists we are aware that fluorides are enzyme inhibitors. The burden of proof is upon the Public Health Service to prove that areas fluoridated for long periods show no evidence of a greater incidence of metabolic hypo-function than the non-fluoridated areas." (Dr. H.J. Goeckel, (Ph.D.), Biochemist.)

"It is now known that such vital organs as the kidneys, thyroid, aorta (main heart artery), liver, lungs and others can be the sites of an unusually high fluoride build-up. No matter how small the amount of fluoride in the diet, a part of it tends to accumulate in the body. When the water supply is fluoridated the intake of the individual is considerably increased and the accumulation in the body increases accordingly. There is no clear-cut pattern as to the degree of retention among individuals. Further, it accumulates in certain organs in an unpredictable way. Some individuals may store up to 100 times more fluoride in certain tissue than others. This has given rise to concern over fluoride's possible role in chronic disease. Fluoride is an enzyme poison and medical authorities recognize that disturbances of the enzyme system are a cause of disease." (Dr. Jonathan Forman, M.D., world-renowned specialist in allergy, Professor-Emeritus of Ohio State University, former editor of the Ohio State Medical Journal, editor of Clinical Physiology, in statement in behalf of Medical-Dental Committee on Evaluation of Fluoridation.)

"Fluorine and fluorides act as direct cellular poisons by interfering with calcium metabolism and enzyme mechanisms." (Handbook of Poisoning: Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment, 11th Edition, 1983.)

"Fluoride is an enzyme poison, in the same class as cyanide, oxalate, or azide ... it is capable of a very wide variety of harmful effects, even at low doses." (James B. Patrick, Ph.D., antibiotics research scientist.)

"Yes, fluoride is an (enzyme) inhibitor. You are right in the implication that when it comes to certain patients, it is important that they do not have fluoride in the water." (Dr. Harold Loe, National Institute of Dental Research, to a subcommittee of the House Appropriations Committee, 1989.)

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